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Saturday, April 18

  1. page Diet and Human Nutrition edited ... [A1] Components of the human diet Diet is the total food taken in by an individual. A balanc…
    ...
    [A1] Components of the human diet
    Diet is the total food taken in by an individual. A balanced diet means that the diet provides food intake is equal to energy needs and to material needs (growth, tissue repair and metabolism-enzymes, hormones etc)
    ...
    human body.
    Some

    Some
    nutrients are
    ...
    the nutrient.
    Essential Nutrients
    · some amino acids
    ...
    Human antibodies vs none
    Human protein vs.
    ...
    acid vs.
    6.

    6.
    Molecular structure
    ...
    fatty acids:
    The

    The
    elements of
    ...
    essential features:
    1.

    1.
    A long hydrocarbon chain
    The

    The
    chain length
    ...
    most common.
    The

    The
    chain is
    ...
    of carbons.
    2.

    2.
    A carboxylic acid group
    Saturated fatty acids compared to unsaturated
    ...
    fatty acids:
    7.

    7.
    Evaluate Health consequences:
    8. Distinguish between - Minerals are elements in ionic form and
    Vitamins are organic compounds
    (view changes)
    1:20 pm
  2. page Diet and Human Nutrition edited ... Human Nutrition and Health Option A http://kitses.com/animation/swfs/digestion.swf Besides …
    ...
    Human Nutrition and Health Option A
    http://kitses.com/animation/swfs/digestion.swf
    Besides energy to keep these systems going we need food for their growthIB Bio Option A notes – Human Nutrition and tissue repair. We also need food for metabolism-Health
    [A1] Components of
    the synthesis (anabolism) and break down (catabolism) of molecules.
    {http://www.diseaseeducation.com/images/VitsMins.jpg} Bodily Systems
    human diet
    Diet is the total food taken in by an individual. A balanced diet means that the diet provides food intake is equal to energy needs and to material needs (growth, tissue repair and metabolism-enzymes, hormones etc)
    Constituents in a diet
    Nutrients
    1 – 3 Nutrients are chemical
    Some nutrients are essential in the human diet, because foods are the only source of the nutrient.
    Essential Nutrients
    ...
    Glucose + oxygen forms carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP and heat)
    Fatty acid + oxygen forms carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP and heat)
    ...
    nitrogen compounds. ForFoe example, phenylalanine
    phenylalanine tyrosine hydroxylase tyrosine
    Diet, disease and Nutritional practice
    Diets deficient in nutrients can lead to disease
    Disease OR
    Nutrient(s) involved
    Symptoms OR
    Activity
    Cause
    Benefits
    Kwashiorkor
    Protein deficiency -
    Shortage of one or
    more essential
    amino acids
    · decrease in blood plasma proteins
    · tissue fluid retention
    · swelling of abdomen
    · mental and physical retardation in developing children
    Phenylketonuria
    (PKU)
    Lacks enzyme/tyrosine
    hydroxylase
    · genetic
    · lacks enzyme to convert essential AA phenylalanine to tyrosine
    · inc. phenylalanine causes brain damage
    · since essential AA can be controlled by diet
    Type II diabetes
    Insulin ..
    Scurvy
    Low vitamin C in diet
    Ricketts
    Low vitamin D
    Arteriolosclerosis
    And coronary
    heart
    disease
    High saturated fats
    and cholesterol
    Obesity
    too much ..
    Anorexia nervosa
    too little .
    Cretinism and
    Goiter
    Low Iodine ..
    Lactose intolerance
    Lacks enzyme/lactase
    Breast feeding
    Human milk vs artificial milk
    Human milk lactose vs glucose
    Human antibodies vs none
    Human protein vs.
    Human fatty acid vs.
    6. Molecular structure of Fatty Acids – outline the VARIATION in molecular structure of fatty acids:
    The elements of fatty acid structure are quite simple. There are two essential features:
    1. A long hydrocarbon chain
    The chain length ranges from 4 to 30 carbons; 12-24 is most common.
    The chain is typically linear, and usually contains an even number of carbons.
    2. A carboxylic acid group
    Saturated fatty acids compared to unsaturated
    Cis and trans fatty acids:
    7. Evaluate Health consequences:
    8. Distinguish between - Minerals are elements in ionic form and
    Vitamins are organic compounds
    DO the minerals we eat look like this?
    Besides energy to keep these systems going we need food for their growth and tissue repair. We also need food for metabolism- the synthesis (anabolism) and break down (catabolism) of molecules.
    {http://www.diseaseeducation.com/images/VitsMins.jpg} Bodily Systems
    Diet is the total food taken in by an individual. A balanced diet means that the diet provides food intake is equal to energy needs and to material needs (growth, tissue repair and metabolism-enzymes, hormones etc)
    Constituents in a diet
    Nutrients are chemical substances, found in foods that are used in the human body.
    Some nutrients are essential in the human diet, because foods are the only source of the nutrient.
    Essential Nutrients
    · some amino acids
    · some unsaturated fats
    · some minerals: ex calcium
    · vitamins
    · water
    Other nutrients are non-essential, either because another nutrient can be used for the same purpose or they can be made in the body by another nutrient. Glucose, starch and other carbohydrates are non-essential because they are used in respiration to provide energy and lipids can be used instead. The carbon-hydrogen bonds found in carbohydrates and in fats contain the stored energy for respiration. In fact there are many more carbon-hydrogen bonds in fat and, therefore, they provide more energy per molecule than glucose. However, fats have important roles in cell membrane structure, insulation and energy storage and are used in respiration when glucose levels are low.
    Glucose + oxygen forms carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP and heat)
    Fatty acid + oxygen forms carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP and heat)
    Of the 20 amino acids in proteins about half are essential because they cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities, but the other half can be made from simpler nitrogen compounds. For example, phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, but tyrosine is non-essential because it can be synthesized from phenylalanine;
    phenylalanine tyrosine hydroxylase tyrosine

    Diets deficient in either essential or non-essential nutrients can lead to disease. Non-essential nutrients may become essential if the diet has too low essential nutrients.
    Check your syllabus for details:
    ...
    A Balanced Diet leads to good health, whereas an unbalanced diet is poor nutrition (malnutrion) and may lead to poor health and disease.
    Diet and Disease Presentations
    ...
    and disease
    Present

    Present
    your topic
    ...
    notes that
    describe the disease and 3 symptoms
    ...
    the nutrient
    explain how this molecule functions in maintaining health
    ...
    the nutrient
    outline a treatment process for the disease
    Diseases
    Disease

    Disease

    Nutrient(s) involved
    Notes
    ...
    enzyme/lactase
    Body mass index
    ...
    important points:
    1.

    1.
    Morbid obesity
    ...
    other factors.
    2.

    2.
    You are
    ...
    the rise.
    3.

    3.
    There is
    ...
    morbid obsity
    How do I know if I'm morbidly obese?
    ...
    calculator below:
    Enter your height:
    feet inchesinches
    Enter your weight in pounds:
    pounds
    Your body mass index is:
    health.howstuffworks.com/bmi.htm/printable
    Vegan vs. vegeterian diets
    {http://www.happycow.net/humor_images/protein.gif}
    (view changes)
    1:20 pm

Friday, April 10

  1. page Diet and Human Nutrition edited Diet and Human Human Nutrition and Health Option A http://kitses.com/animation/swfs/digesti…

    Diet and HumanHuman Nutrition and Health Option A
    http://kitses.com/animation/swfs/digestion.swf
    Besides energy to keep these systems going we need food for their growth and tissue repair. We also need food for metabolism- the synthesis (anabolism) and break down (catabolism) of molecules.
    {http://www.diseaseeducation.com/images/VitsMins.jpg} Bodily Systems
    Diet is the total food taken in by an individual. A balanced diet means that the diet provides food intake is equal to energy needs and to material needs (growth, tissue repair and metabolism-enzymes, hormones etc)
    A nutrient is a substance that must be included in the diet. Essential nutrients are those that the body cannot make (some amino acids) and non essential nutrients are those that the body can make from other molecules available in the body (some amnio acids, or glucose since fats can supply energy)
    Constituents in a diet
    Nutrients are chemical substances, found in foods that are used in the human body.
    Some nutrients are essential in the human diet, because foods are the only source of the nutrient.
    Essential Nutrients
    · some amino acids
    · some unsaturated fats
    · some minerals: ex calcium
    · vitamins
    · water
    Other nutrients are non-essential, either because another nutrient can be used for the same purpose or they can be made in the body by another nutrient. Glucose, starch and other carbohydrates are non-essential because they are used in respiration to provide energy and lipids can be used instead. The carbon-hydrogen bonds found in carbohydrates and in fats contain the stored energy for respiration. In fact there are many more carbon-hydrogen bonds in fat and, therefore, they provide more energy per molecule than glucose. However, fats have important roles in cell membrane structure, insulation and energy storage and are used in respiration when glucose levels are low.
    Glucose + oxygen forms carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP and heat)
    Fatty acid + oxygen forms carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP and heat)
    Of the 20 amino acids in proteins about half are essential because they cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities, but the other half can be made from simpler nitrogen compounds. For example, phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, but tyrosine is non-essential because it can be synthesized from phenylalanine;
    phenylalanine tyrosine hydroxylase tyrosine
    Diets deficient in either essential or non-essential nutrients can lead to disease. Non-essential nutrients may become essential if the diet has too low essential nutrients.

    Check your syllabus for details:
    ...
    the general structure, 3-4 sources, 3-4 functionsstructure and deficiency
    ...
    animal glycogen): Lipid (saturated,
    Lipid : saturated,
    unsaturated including trans fat ): Proteins; Minerals (esp.:
    Proteins; amino acid chains, enzymes etc
    Minerals
    zinc, iodine, iron, phosphorous): Vitaminsphosphorous:
    Vitamins
    A, B12,B 12, C, D, E : Water: Fiber:
    Water:
    Fiber:

    Although nucleic acids are an important biomolecule, they are not considered separately in diet and nutrition; for example, carbohydrates are a source of nucleic acid synthesis
    Vitamins and Minerals:
    ...
    The graph below looks less interesting but the minerals we eat do come from some beautiful crystals as seen above. The minerals we eat must be soluble in water; thus minerals such as sodium chloride, calcium carbonate or potassium chloride are the minerals in our diet, and they have been processed for easier intake. The metal is in ionic form (Na = Na+) and the nonmetal is as well (cl = cl-)
    {http://www.elderlynursing.com/mineral-content.gif}
    BalancedNeed for Balanced Diets
    Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA): RDAs can to be used to assess whether a diet is adequate is essential nutrients (and energy). Diet can be adjusted accordingly.
    RDA values allow consumer to more accurately assess food products and make more informed choices about their diet.
    ...
    {http://www.diseaseeducation.com/images/Disease1.gif}
    A Balanced Diet leads to good health, whereas an unbalanced diet is poor nutrition (malnutrion) and may lead to poor health and disease.
    2.5 Variation in energy requirements:
    Age:
    Diet and Disease Presentations
    Diet and disease
    Present your topic
    with increasing age up to adulthood, more energya power point and hand-out notes that
    describe the disease and 3 symptoms
    describe the biochemical nature of the nutrient involved - where relevant; state whether it
    is neede as an essential or nonessential nutrient, the body grows larger
    Gender: females use less energy than males, due
    recommended amount in the diet, the amount needed (too little/too much) to smaller body sizeprevent the disease, and less heat loss becausethe source of thicker layersthe nutrient
    explain how this molecule functions in maintaining health
    discuss the conditions that bring about a deficiency
    of fat under the skin
    pregnant females require more energy
    Condtion: breast feeding - lactating - females need more energy ; growth spurts
    nutrient
    outline a treatment process for the disease
    Diseases
    Disease
    Nutrient(s) involved
    Notes
    Kwashiorkor
    proteins
    Phenylketonuria
    enzyme/tyrosine
    hydroxylase
    Type II diabetes
    insulin
    Scurvy
    vitamin C
    Ricketts
    vitamin D
    Arteriolosclerosis
    and some illnesses require more energy
    Activity: amount

    coronary heart disease
    some fats
    Obesity
    too much …
    Anorexia nervosa
    too little ….
    Cretinism and Goiter
    Iodine
    Lactose intolerance
    enzyme/lactase
    Lactose intolerance
    enzyme/lactase
    Body mass index
    If you are morbidly obese, you should remember three important points:
    1. Morbid obesity does not mean weakness, laziness or gluttony. It is a serious medical condition with serious medical consequences. Current research suggests that many factors work together to influence your weight. These include genetics, your eating habits as a child and adult, hormones, and psychological and other factors.
    2. You are not alone. About 65 percent
    of energy dependsall Americans are considered overweight, about 25 percent are considered obese, and about 4 percent are considered morbidly obese. All of these numbers are on the amount and typerise.
    3. There is hope. Resources are available to help you avoid the medical consequences
    of physical activity
    Size: larger people need more energy
    3.6 Vegan
    morbid obsity
    How do I know if I'm morbidly obese?
    A good way to assess your weight is to calculate your body mass index (BMI). Your BMI estimates how much you should weigh based on your height. You can check your BMI by consulting our BMI chart or by using the handy calculator below:
    Enter your height:
    feet inches
    Enter your weight in pounds:
    pounds
    Your body mass index is:
    health.howstuffworks.com/bmi.htm/printable
    Vegan
    vs. vegeterian
    {http://www.happycow.net/humor_images/protein.gif}
    {http://whosthegrownup.com/wp-content/uploads/VEGAN_DIET.jpg}
    {http://content.revolutionhealth.com/contentimages/images-image_popup-fn7_vegetarian.jpg}
    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are unlikely in the vegeterian diet. However, Vegans may get insufficient cyanocobalamin (??); zinc (red meat, seafood and egg yolk but,also cereal and yeast); calciferol (milk eggs and liver, but also sunlight manufactures it from precursor molecules)
    3.1 - .2 LipidsLipids and 3. 3 - .5 Cholesterol
    Choesterol is a lipid (insoluble in water). It is a steroid lipid, composed of 4 hydrocarbon rings
    Cholesterol is carried in the blood by surrounding molecules called lippoproteins. Lippoproteins with a high % of protein are called high density (HDL) while lippooproteins with low % protein are called low density (LDL)
    (view changes)
    7:15 am

Monday, April 14

  1. page Physiology of Exercise edited ... The above graph shows how the ventilation rate changes during exercise. Pre-exercise is repres…
    ...
    The above graph shows how the ventilation rate changes during exercise. Pre-exercise is represented by "minus" time, zero onwards represents the time during exercise, while post-exercise is indicated by "plus" time in minutes.
    {http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/course/ens304/public_html/section2/Image39.gif}
    3.2 ,3.3 and 3.4 Explain cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) including terms such as oxygen, lactate (lactic acid), oxygen debt, and ATP Know that sprinters use up their oxygen supply, while marathoners use up their glucose supply.
    Read notes and handout notes

    3.5 Myoglobin
    has high affinity for oxygen,
    ...
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/3djigsaw_02/index.shtml?organs
    3.7 Muscle Fatique
    __
    TRY THIS!
    __
    {http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/8959.jpg} {http://www.spiralnotebook.org/images/musclesdroop25.jpg}
    WHAT HAPPENED??
    Muscles feel fatiqued when
    glycogen/glucose is used up from muscle fiber store
    lactate accumulates in the blood
    __
    B4
    B4: Fitness and Training
    __
    B5 Injuries http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/AnimationPlayer/200000.htm

    See notes from presentations
    B5: Injuries__
    Visit this link to have injuries explained
    http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/AnimationPlayer/200000.htm__

    (view changes)
    2:45 pm
  2. page Physiology of Exercise edited ... {http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=22488&rendTypeId=4} http://www.howstuffworks.com/heart3…
    ...
    {http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=22488&rendTypeId=4}
    http://www.howstuffworks.com/heart3.htm Cardiac conduction system
    {http://lungdiseases.about.com/library/graphics/Lungs.bmp}
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/3djigsaw_02/index.shtml?organs
    3.7 Muscle Fatique
    __
    TRY THIS!
    __
    {http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/8959.jpg} {http://www.spiralnotebook.org/images/musclesdroop25.jpg}
    Muscles feel fatiqued when
    glycogen/glucose is used up from muscle fiber store
    lactate accumulates in the blood
    __

    B4 Fitness and Training
    __
    B5 Injuries http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/AnimationPlayer/200000.htm
    (view changes)
    2:32 pm
  3. page Physiology of Exercise edited ... The above graph shows how the ventilation rate changes during exercise. Pre-exercise is repres…
    ...
    The above graph shows how the ventilation rate changes during exercise. Pre-exercise is represented by "minus" time, zero onwards represents the time during exercise, while post-exercise is indicated by "plus" time in minutes.
    {http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/course/ens304/public_html/section2/Image39.gif}
    3.63.5 Myoglobin
    has high affinity for oxygen,
    therefore releases oxygen only when levels get very low.
    Slow muscle fibers have increased myoglobin Haemoglobin
    {http://courses.cm.utexas.edu/jrobertus/ch339k/overheads-1/ch7_myoglobin.jpg} {http://www1.moe.edu.sg/learn@/quest/winners/secondary/nanyang_girls/haemo/haemoglobin.jpg}
    3.6
    Explain the
    ...
    muscles {http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year1/endoc2.gif} B4Acitvity and emotion can trigger the release of adrenalin hormone from the adrenal glands ino the blood stream. When adrenalin is relaeased into the blood stream, it causes the
    glycogen stores in the liver to break down and release glucose
    bronchioles in the lungs widen, to increase ventilation and oxygen diffusion into the blood
    heart to increase, so blood can be pumped faster to the place it is needed
    blood vessels to the muscles dialate, so more blood rich in glucose and oxygen can reach them - - the blood vessels to the skin, kidney, liver and digestive system constrict
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Heart_anterior_large.jpg/400px-Heart_anterior_large.jpg}
    {http://www.cardiowellness.org/images/image002.jpg}
    {http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=22488&rendTypeId=4}
    http://www.howstuffworks.com/heart3.htm Cardiac conduction system
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/3djigsaw_02/index.shtml?organs
    B4
    Fitness and
    ...

    B5 Injuries http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/AnimationPlayer/200000.htm
    (view changes)
    2:10 pm

Friday, April 11

  1. page Physiology of Exercise edited ... The above graph shows how the ventilation rate changes during exercise. Pre-exercise is repres…
    ...
    The above graph shows how the ventilation rate changes during exercise. Pre-exercise is represented by "minus" time, zero onwards represents the time during exercise, while post-exercise is indicated by "plus" time in minutes.
    {http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/course/ens304/public_html/section2/Image39.gif}
    B43.6 Explain the role of Adrenalin in increasing levels of oxygen and glucose to the muscles {http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year1/endoc2.gif} B4 Fitness and
    B5 Injuries
    (view changes)
    5:14 am

Wednesday, April 9

  1. page Physiology of Exercise edited ... {http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/course/ens304/public_html/section2/Image40.gif} {http://hsc.csu.e…
    ...
    {http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/course/ens304/public_html/section2/Image40.gif}
    {http://hsc.csu.edu.au/pdhpe/core2/aerobic/4-2/ventvol.gif} Ventilation volume graph
    The above graph shows how the ventilation rate changes during exercise. Pre-exercise is represented by "minus" time, zero onwards represents the time during exercise, while post-exercise is indicated by "plus" time in minutes.
    {http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/course/ens304/public_html/section2/Image39.gif}

    B4 Fitness and Training
    B5 Injuries
    (view changes)
    6:09 am
  2. page Physiology of Exercise edited ... 2.4 Explain how the contraction of a muscle is controlled by motor areas of the cerebral corte…
    ...
    2.4 Explain how the contraction of a muscle is controlled by motor areas of the cerebral cortex, motor neurons, synapses, muscle fibers, and feedback to the brain by propriorecetptors and sensory receptors
    {http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/11thhour/matt/images/c5t1top.gif}
    ...
    another synapase. BelowBelow antagonistic muscle
    {http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/11thhour/matt/images/c12t1b.gif}
    Below The inhibitory neuron (A) is performing its usual task of slowing the flow of information through an antagonistic muscle neuron, while the neuron (B) in the presence of marijuana-like chemicals relax the inhibitory neuron's action.
    {http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2004/september22/gifs/marijuana_art.jpg}
    B3 Muscles and Energy
    3.1 Explain how and why ventilation rate increases with exercise
    Ventilation Rate = total volume of air taken into the lungs per minute (liters per minute), determined by number of breaths per minute x volume of air per breath
    exercise increases metabolism
    metabolism increases CO2 production (glucose + oxygen = water + carbon dioxide + chemical(ATP) and heat energy)
    increased CO2 increases acidty, that is lowers pH of the blood.
    lower pH deteced by chemoreceptors in arteries and message received by brain breathing center (medulla)
    breathing center in brain sends nervous impulse to muscles of diaphragm amd intercostals to increase relaxation/contraction
    ventilation rate increases
    {http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/course/ens304/public_html/section2/Image40.gif}
    {http://hsc.csu.edu.au/pdhpe/core2/aerobic/4-2/ventvol.gif} Ventilation volume graph

    B4 Fitness and Training
    B5 Injuries
    (view changes)
    6:03 am

Thursday, April 3

  1. page Physiology of Exercise edited ... B2 Muscles and Coordination 2.1 Outline the general organization of the Human NS: CNS (spinal…
    ...
    B2 Muscles and Coordination
    2.1 Outline the general organization of the Human NS: CNS (spinal cord and brain) and Peripheral NS (Nerves)
    ...
    (motor neurons).
    {http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week10/spinalcord.gif}
    {http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/rltdsci/trinuc/f_f03motrsoma.jpg}
    ...
    The proprioceptors pass this information on to the sensory neuron which relays the information to the CNS and the brain.
    {http://lvillage.education.vic.gov.au/lv/diec/hp.nsf/Files/jebmcdonalds/$File/sensory.JPG}
    ...
    synaptic transmission
    *Arrival

    *Arrival
    of electrical
    ...
    along neuron
    release, diffusion and destruction of neurotransmitter substace across synaptic junction
    propagation of subsequent electrical impulse at adjacent neuron(s)
    =
    {http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year1/synapse.gif}
    {http://catalog.nucleusinc.com/imagescooked/2728W.jpg}
    ...
    2.4 Explain how the contraction of a muscle is controlled by motor areas of the cerebral cortex, motor neurons, synapses, muscle fibers, and feedback to the brain by propriorecetptors and sensory receptors
    {http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/11thhour/matt/images/c5t1top.gif}
    2.5 Explain how Inhibitory neurons coordinate the coordination of antagonistic muscles at a joint Sensory or interneurons forming a synapse with a motor neuron may further the propagation of an impulse or inhibit its propagation. The propagation of an impulse may be stimulated by a neurotransmitter at the synapase and inhibited by a meurotransmitter at another synapase. Below antagonistic muscle are shown to be stimulated and inhibited; for example, if the biceps is stimulated to flex the elbow joint, the triceps will be inhibited to relax
    {http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/11thhour/matt/images/c12t1b.gif}
    Below The inhibitory neuron (A) is performing its usual task of slowing the flow of information through an antagonistic muscle neuron, while the neuron (B) in the presence of marijuana-like chemicals relax the inhibitory neuron's action.
    {http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2004/september22/gifs/marijuana_art.jpg}

    B3 Muscles and Energy
    B4 Fitness and Training
    (view changes)
    5:17 am

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